Vandalism is a growing national problem. Last year this senseless crime cost United States Citizens over one billion dollars. Vandalism is a problem that gets to everyone in some form or another. It can affect your family, friends, property, community, and your pocketbook.
An act or omission which renders the person doing the act or making the emission liable to punishment under this code, or under any Act, or Law, is called an offence. Offences are of three kinds, namely, felonies, misdemeanours, and simple offence. A felony is any offence which is declared by law to be a felony, or is punishable, without proof of previous conviction, with death or with imprisonment for three years or more.
A misdemeanour is any offence which is declared by law to be a misdemeanour, or is punishable by imprisonment for not less than six months, but less than three years. All offences, other than felonies and misdemeanours, are simple offences.
When a person, intending to commit an offence, begins to put his intention into execution by means adapted to its fulfilment, and manifests his intention by some overt act, but does not fulfil his intention to such an extent as to commit the offence, he is said to attempt to commit the offence.
It is immaterial, except so far as regards punishment, whether the offender does all that is necessary on his part for completing the Commission of the offence, or whether the complete fulfilment of his intention is prevented by circumstances independent of his will, or whether he desists of his own motion from the further Prosecution of his intention.
It is immaterial that by reason of circumstances not known to the offender it Vandalism: affect and public rest rooms essay impossible in fact to commit the offence. The same facts may constitute one offence and an attempt to commit another offence.
The expression "the offender may be arrested without warrant" means that the provisions of this code relating to the arrest of offenders or suspected offenders without warrant are applicable to the offence in question, either generally or subject to such conditions, if any, as to time, place, or circumstance, or as to the person authorised to make the arrest, as, are specified in the particular case.
Except when otherwise stated, the fact that an offence is within the definition of a felony as set forth in this code imports that the offender may be arrested without warrant.
The expression "the offender cannot be arrested without warrant" means that the provisions of this code relating to the arrest of offenders pr suspected offenders without warrant are not applicable to the offence in question, except subject to such conditions, if any, as to time, place, or circumstance, or as to the person authorised to make the arrest, as are specified in the particular case.
When the term "carnal knowledge" or the term "carnal connection" is used in defining an offence, it is implied that the offence, so far as regards that element of it, is complete upon penetration.
Chapter 2 Parties to Offences 7. When an offence is committed, each of the following persons is deemed to have taken part in committing the offence and to be guilty of the offence, and may be charged with actually committing it, that is to say- a every person who actually does the act or makes the omission which constitutes the offence; b every person who does or omits to do any act for the purpose of enabling or aiding another person to commit the offence; c every person who aids another person in committing the offence; d any person who counsels or procures any other person to commit the offence.
In the fourth case he may be charged either with himself committing the offence or with counselling or procuring its commission. A conviction of counselling or procuring the commission of an offence entails the same consequences in all respects as a conviction of committing the offence.
Any person who procures another to do or omit to do any act of such a nature that, if he had himself done the act or made the omission, the act or omission would have constituted an offence on his part, is guilty of an offence of the same kind, and is liable to the same punishment, as if he had himself done the act or made the omission; and he may be charged with himself doing the act or making the omission.
When two or more persons form a common intention to prosecute an unlawful purpose in conjunction with one another, and in the prosecution of such purpose an offence is committed of such a nature that its commission was a probable consequence of the prosecution of such purpose, each of them is deemed to have committed the offence.
When a person counsels another to commit an offence, and an offence is actually committed after such counsel by the person to whom it is given, it is immaterial whether the offence actually committed is the same as that counselled or a different one, or whether the offence is committed in the way counselled or in a different way, provided in either case that the facts constituting the offence actually committed are a probable consequence of carrying out the counsel.
In either case the person who gave the counsel is deemed to have counselled the other person to commit the offence actually committed by him.
A person who receives or assists another who is, to his knowledge guilty of an offence, in order to enable him to escape punishment, is said to become an accessory after the fact to the offence. A wife does not become an accessory after the fact to an offence of which her husband is guilty by receiving or; assisting him in order to enable him to escape punishment; nor by receiving or assisting, in her husband's presence and by his authority, another person who is guilty of an offence in the commission of which her husband has taken part, in order to enable that other person to escape punishment; nor does a husband become accessory after the fact to an offence of which his wife is guilty by receiving or assisting her in order to enable her to escape punishment.
In this section the terms "wife" and "husband" mean respectively the wife and husband of a Christian marriage. Chapter 3 Application of Criminal Law 10A. A person shall not be punished for doing or omitting to do an act of unless the act or omission constituted an offence under the law in force when it occurred.
Where by the provisions of any Federal law the doing of any act or the making of any omission is constituted an offence those provisions shall apply to every person who is in Nigeria at the time of his doing the act or making the omission.
But in any such case it is a defence to the charge to prove that the accused person did not intend that the act or omission should have effect in Nigeria. This section does not extend to a case in which the only material event that occurs in Nigeria is the death in Nigeria of a person whose death is caused by an act, done or omitted to be done, at a place not in Nigeria and at a time when he was not in Nigeria.
But in any such case it is a defence to the charge to prove that the Focused person did not intend that the act or omission should have effect in the State.
This subsection does not extend to a case in which the only material event that occurs in the State is the death in the State of a person whose death is caused by an act, done or omitted to be done, at a place not in the State and at a time when he was not in the State.
Any person who, having while out of Nigeria counselled or procured the commission of an offence which is actually committed in Nigeria, afterwards comes into Nigeria, is by such coming into Nigeria guilty of an offence of the same kind, and is liable to the same punishment, as if he had been in Nigeria when the offence was committed.
The provisions of section 13 shall apply in relation to Offences against a law of the State as they apply in relation to offences against a Federal law but as if references to Nigeria were references to the State.
Any person who while in Nigeria procures another to do an act or make an omission at a place not in Nigeria of such a nature that, if he had himself done the act or made the omission in Nigeria, he would have been guilty of an offence, and that, if he had himself done the act or made the omission, he would have been guilty of an offence under the laws in force in the place where the act or omission is done or made, is guilty of an offence of the same kind, and is liable to the same punishment, as if the act had been done or the omission had been made in Nigeria.
Any person who while in a State procures another to do an act or make an omission at a place not in the State of such a nature that if he had himself done the act or made the omission in the State he would have been himself guilty of an offence against a law of the State, and that, if he had done the act or made the omission he would have been guilty of an offence under the laws of the place where the act or omission is done or made, is guilty of an offence of the same kind, and is liable to the same punishment, as if the act had been done or the omission had been made in the State.
Members of the armed forces and of the police forces of Nigeria are subject to the special laws relating to the forces to which they respectively belong, but are not exempt from the provisions of this code.
Chapter 4 Punishments Subject to the provisions of any other written law, the punishments which may be inflicted under this code are death, imprisonment, caning, fine and forfeiture.
Whenever a male person who in the opinion of the court has not attained seventeen years of age has been found guilty of any offence the court may, in its discretion, order him to be caned in addition to or in substitution for any other punishments to which he is liable.
When any person is convicted of an offence under section 98, 98A, 98B, 99,orthe court may, in addition to or in lieu of any penalty which may be imposed, order the forfeiture to the State of any property which has passed in connection with the commission of the offence or if such property cannot be forfeited or cannot be found of such sum as the court shall assess as the value of such property, and any property or sum so forfeited shall he dealt with in such manner as the Governor may direct.
Payment of any sum so ordered to be forfeited may be enforced in the same manner and subject to the same incidents as in the case of the payment of a fine. When any person is convicted of an offence under section, orthe court may, in the addition to or in lieu of any penalty which may be imposed, order the forfeiture of any personal property which has been used in the commission of the offence or in respect of which the offence has been committed and may order such property to be destroyed or otherwise dealt with as to it may seem fit.
Nothing in this code affects the prerogative of mercy where of exercised in accordance with the Constitution of the Federation.Vandalism, Causes And Effects.
Sketches on school tables, doodles on bathroom and random scribbles in walls are just some of common ‘vandalism’ we see on our daily basis, but what does Vandalism . Jan 27, · Almost a geological age ago, it seems nowthat great moral saga of belief and violence that unfolded in the musky deeps of the South during .
Uncovering Secrets of the Sphinx has been battered by centuries of weathering and vandalism. But the way he brandished it in public reveals his savvy understanding of mythology and power.
For some students, vandalism is a way of expressing anger or frustration. For others, it is a way of impressing peers. Whatever its reason, even minor vandalism can . 10/5/ - In an article by the watchdog group Alliance for Natural Health (ANH), Wikipedia entries for alternative and natural medicine are shown to consistently have severe censorship, misinformation, and vandalism.
Private accommodation, hospitality, commerce, and other services, prospects, events, and possibilities offered to the General Public shall be subject to a Determination of Access by the City Department of Public .