If you are American, SSC endorses voting in this presidential election. Andrew Gelman, Nate Silver, and Aaron Edlin calculate the chance that a single vote will determine the election ie break a tie in a state that breaks an Electoral College tie. It ranges from about one in ten million if you live in a swing state to one in a billion if you live in a very safe state. The average American has a one in sixty million chance of determining the election results.
Semi-Presidential System Essay Semi-Presidential System Essay Semi-presidential government systems were first defined in contemporary academia by the contributions of Maur ice Duverger,which were dedicated to the French Fifth Republic.
Indeed, as the most relevant variation on the theme of presidential regimes, semi-presidentialism may be defined by three basic features: Consequently, actual working patterns in semi-presidential systems are directly dependent upon the presence or absence of political congruence between the president and parliamentary majority.
In fact, in such systems of government, an elected president who is supported by a cohesive and disciplined majority in parliament will acquire predominance in governmental decision-making.
On the contrary, when the opposite case occurs, and the two heads of government are an expression of rival parties, the way is paved for periods of socalled cohabitation. As a result, divergent majorities grant the prime minister a primary role in most legislative arenas, with the general exception of foreign policy.
Despite its complex constitutional architecture, a diffusion of semi-presidential models has proliferated recently, especially in new democracies. An additional twelve African cases also can be classified as semi-presidential. Only countries in the Americas seem to privilege pure presidentialism.
In Western countries the prestige of the semi-presidential constitutional model is increasing. The debate on the best form of government is still unsettled. Academic controversy over ideal institutional formats for government has been shaped by the lack of agreement on classificatory criteria and by the varied forms of semipresidentialism.
Matthew Shugart and John Carey in proposed a further division of the concept into premierpresidential and president-parliamentary subtypes: Under premierpresidentialism, the prime minister and cabinet are exclusively accountable to the parliamentary majority, while under president-parliamentarism, the prime minister and cabinet are accountable to both the president and parliamentary majority.
Other approaches are more dynamic in that the three most diffused forms of representative government—parliamentary, presidential, and semi-presidential—are not viewed as mutually exclusive categories. Among adherents of this perspective, Thomas Poguntke and Paul Webb have provided a flexible analytical framework for the study of varieties among and within semi-presidentialisms.
Concepts, Consequences, and Contesting Explanations. Does It Make a Difference? Linz and Arturo Valenzuela, 3— Johns Hopkins University Press, Poguntke,Thomas, and Paul Webb. The Presidentialization of Politics: A Comparative Study of Modern Democracies.
Oxford University Press, Sartori, Giovanni Comparative Constitutional Engineering: An Inquiry into Structures, Incentives, and Outcomes. New York University Press, Binder, and Bert A. Constitutional Design and Electoral Dynamics.
Cambridge University Press, If you need a custom essay or research paper on this topic please use our writing services.The politics of Pakistan takes place within the framework established by the ashio-midori.com country is a federal parliamentary republic in which provincial governments enjoy a high degree of autonomy and residuary powers.
Executive power is vested with the national cabinet which is headed by the prime minister, who works coherently along with the bicameral parliament and the judicature. Founded in , Macmillan Publishers is one of the largest global trade book publishers and home to numerous bestselling and award-winning fiction, nonfiction, and children’s books, from St.
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Semi-Presidential System in France Essay Sample. The semi-presidential system (referred to as Semi-presidentialism) is a system of government in which a president and a prime minister are both active participants in the day-to-day administration of the state.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.
The semi-presidential system (referred to as Semi-presidentialism) is a system of government in which a president and a prime minister are both active participants in the day-to-day administration of the state.