The issues of drugs in sport

Doping has been a controversial issue since competitive sports first began.

The issues of drugs in sport

Half believe performance enhancing substance use is "widespread" among those who play sport competitively. Ukad chief Nicole Sapstead described the figures as "incredibly alarming". What do the statistics say? According to figures from UK Anti-Doping Ukadthe national body responsible for protecting clean sport, there are currently 52 athletes and coaches serving bans.

What does the poll tell us? Click to see content: Ukad needs an extension of powers and extra cash from individual sports governing bodies to "address what is fast becoming a crisis for sport".

There is a "woeful lack of education" at amateur level about the health risks of doping. There is a "robust" anti-doping programme in the UK, but it faces "challenges". Ukad works with police forces to target suppliers of drugs to amateur dopers.

Media playback is not supported on this device State of Sport: Can Ukad do more to tackle doping? Why do amateurs dope? However, when this is widened out to include those who admitted taking other performance-enhancing substances, boosting results was no longer the primary reason.

Younger people are the main users of anabolic steroids in amateur sport, according to the poll for BBC Sport. Not one interviewee aged 55 or over said they had used anabolic steroids. However, users aged between 35 and 54 are significantly more likely than those aged to say pain relief is among the main reasons they have used steroids or other sports supplements.

Using steroids for image reasons is a "worrying" problem among young people in Wales, according to the nation's social services and public health minister Rebecca Evans, who said in January: The possession of steroids, which are class C drugs, is not illegal under UK law as long as they are only for personal use.

It is illegal, however, to supply them to other people. What else are people taking? According to the poll, a wide range of substances - both legal and illegal - are taken by amateur sports men and women to support their performance or recovery.

Performance-enhancing substances can also include recreational drugs and prescribed medications: We also asked people about other substances they consumed while playing sport, including: Were you ever scared of getting caught? Former amateur cyclist Dan Stevens was banned after refusing a test in He turned whistleblower but labelled Ukad's handling of his information "a catastrophic failure".

The issues of drugs in sport

I think it is widespread in celebrity, I think it is widespread in the beauty industry; I think it is certainly widespread in the sports industry. That was enough to see a huge, huge gain. The main thing was curiosity. You've got a situation where someone is overweight, a little bit fat, need to lean down, get in shape.

And they get in shape. What is the 'gateway hypothesis'?

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Dr Lambros Lazuras, an assistant professor of social psychology at Sheffield Hallam University who studies doping behaviour, told BBC Sport that there is a "pill-taking culture" in amateur sport and general society, which can act as a "gateway" to stronger substances.

Media playback is not supported on this device 'Heart disease and mental health': What are the health risks of doping? We forget that people in most exercise settings might consider using substances.

You don't care about your health anymore.

OnSet The UNSW Science, Engineering and Technology Review

You care about your performance and how you look to other people - or yourself. You can train, train, train and not get anywhere. Some of them are taking light stuff and some of them are really heavily using steroids - it all depends how much money you have.

That's how easy it is to get steroids in the UK.Proponents of accepting performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) in sports argue that their harmful health effects have been overstated, that health risks are an athlete’s decision to make, that using drugs is part of the evolution of sports much like improved training techniques and new technologies, and that efforts to keep athletes from using PEDs are overzealous, unproductive, unfairly administered, and bound to fail.

Published: 9 Jul Sport's war on drugs is being lost on many fronts.

Abuse of Drugs to Enhance Sports Performance: Winning at Any Cost

Team Sky rival bemoans Tour’s lack of crowd protection for ‘put-upon Froome’. Many challenges still remain in the drugs in sport area. While success is achieved in one area, new issues and challenges emerge in another. If anti-drug initiatives are to be effective, they will require adequate resourcing, enthusiastic international co-operation and a commitment from all sections of the community to make competitive sport even relatively drug free.

The abuse of drugs in sport has become an increasing problem in recent decades, although substance use and abuse to improve sporting performance has been reported as far back in history as ancient Greek and Roman times (Mottram, ).

The World Anti-Doping Code, the first serious attempt to standardize legal norms internationally, raises a number of difficult legal issues for the legal tools used to implement the Code and whether those tools are consistent with their justifications.

For example, the question of an athlete's knowledge or intent to commit a doping infraction . Many challenges still remain in the drugs in sport area.

The issues of drugs in sport

While success is achieved in one area, new issues and challenges emerge in another. If anti-drug initiatives are to be effective, they will require adequate resourcing, enthusiastic international co-operation and a commitment from all sections of the community to make competitive sport.

Drugs and Cheating in Sport: Ethical Issues by Ollie McCormack on Prezi