Are you sure you want to delete this answer? Yes Sorry, something has gone wrong. Overall they were beneficial.
This marked the beginning of the Crusades. Those who joined the armed pilgrimage wore a cross as a symbol of the Church. The Crusades set the stage for several religious knightly military orders, including the Knights Templarthe Teutonic Knights, and the Hospitallers.
These groups defended the Holy Land and protected pilgrims traveling to and from the region. In a popular movement known as the Children's Crusadea motley crew including children, adolescents, women, the elderly and the poor marched all the way from the Rhineland to Italy behind a young man named Nicholas, who said he had received divine instruction to march toward the Holy Land.
These groups departed for Byzantium in August In the first major clash between the Crusaders and Muslims, Turkish forces crushed the invading Europeans at Cibotus. Another group of Crusaders, led by the notorious Count Emicho, carried out a series of massacres of Jews in various towns in the Rhineland indrawing widespread outrage and causing a major crisis in Jewish-Christian relations.
When the four main armies of Crusaders arrived in ConstantinopleAlexius insisted that their leaders swear an oath of loyalty to him and recognize his authority over any land regained from the Turks, as well as any other territory they might conquer. All but Bohemond resisted taking the oath.
The city surrendered in late June. The Fall of Jerusalem Despite deteriorating relations between the Crusaders and Byzantine leaders, the combined force continued its march through Anatolia, capturing the great Syrian city of Antioch in June Second Crusade Having achieved their goal in an unexpectedly short period of time after the First Crusade, many of the Crusaders departed for home.
To govern the conquered territory, those who remained established four large western settlements, or Crusader states, in Jerusalem, Edessa, Antioch and Tripoli.
After Louis and Conrad managed to assemble their armies at Jerusalem, they decided to attack the Syrian stronghold of Damascus with an army of some 50, the largest Crusader force yet.
The combined Muslim forces dealt a humiliating defeat to the Crusaders, decisively ending the Second Crusade.
Nur al-Din added Damascus to his expanding empire in InSaladin began a major campaign against the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. His troops virtually destroyed the Christian army at the battle of Hattin, taking back the important city along with a large amount of territory.
From the recaptured city of Jaffa, Richard reestablished Christian control over some of the region and approached Jerusalem, though he refused to lay siege to the city. In SeptemberRichard and Saladin signed a peace treaty that reestablished the Kingdom of Jerusalem though without the city of Jerusalem and ended the Third Crusade.
In response, the Crusaders declared war on Constantinople, and the Fourth Crusade ended with the devastating Fall of Constantinoplemarked by a bloody conquest, looting and near-destruction of the magnificent Byzantine capital later that year.
Final Crusades Throughout the remainder of the 13th century, a variety of Crusades aimed not so much to topple Muslim forces in the Holy Land but to combat any and all of those seen as enemies of the Christian faith.
The Albigensian Crusade aimed to root out the heretical Cathari or Albigensian sect of Christianity in France, while the Baltic Crusades sought to subdue pagans in Transylvania.
The movement never reached the Holy Land. The peace treaty expired a decade later, and Muslims easily regained control of Jerusalem. This battle, known as the Seventh Crusade, was a failure for Louis.Start studying Chapter 7.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The first of these was during the period of the crusades’, thereby supporting the hypothesis that the crusading phenomenon was beneficial to Western Europe (Newell, , 99).
Apr 10, · The first Crusade was called by the Pope in , and actually began in , when Crusaders (Christian soldiers) arrived in Jerusalem. There were seven "Crusades" which were actually several major campaigns in the same ashio-midori.com: Resolved.
The medieval "Crusade" was a holy war. For a conflict to be officially considered a Crusade, it had to be sanctioned by the pope and conducted against groups seen as enemies of Christendom.
Initially, only those expeditions to the Holy Land (Jerusalem and associated territory) were considered Crusades. Thus was launched the first and most successful of at least eight crusades against the Muslim caliphates of the Near East. "God wills it!" That was the battle cry of the thousands of Christians who joined crusades to free the Holy Land from the Muslims.
In addition, some crusades have been named, including the Albigensian Crusade, the Baltic (or Northern) Crusades, the People's Crusade, and the Reconquista.
Crusader Territory Upon the success of the First Crusade, the Europeans set up a king of Jerusalem and established what .