The methodology section of a research paper answers two main questions: How was the data collected or generated? And, how was it analyzed?
This content can be saved to the "My Activity" tab in your user profile. Each of the subject rankings is compiled using four sources. The second two indicators assess research impact, based on research citations per paper and h-index in the relevant subject.
These four components are combined to produce the results for each of the subject rankings, with weightings adapted for each discipline. Having provided their name, contact details, job title and the institution where they are based, respondents identify the countries, regions and faculty areas they are most familiar with, and up to two narrower subject disciplines in which they have expertise.
For each of the up to five faculty areas they identify, respondents are asked to list up to 10 domestic and 30 international institutions which they consider to be excellent for research in the given area.
They are not able to select their own institution. For the QS World University Rankings by Subject, the results of the survey are filtered according to the narrow area of expertise identified by respondents.
While academics can select up to two narrow areas of expertise, greater emphasis is placed on respondents who have identified only one. Employer reputation The QS World University Rankings are unique in incorporating employability as a key factor in the evaluation of international universities.
Inthe QS World University Rankings by Subject draws on 40, survey responses from graduate employers worldwide. The employer reputation survey works on a similar basis to the academic one, but without the channelling for different faculty areas.
Employers are asked to identify up to 10 domestic and 30 international institutions they consider excellent for the recruitment of graduates.
They are also asked to identify the disciplines from which they prefer to recruit. By examining the intersection of these two questions, we can infer a measure of excellence in a given discipline. Research citations per paper For the QS World University Rankings by Subject we measure citations per paper, rather than citations per faculty member.
This is due to the impracticality of reliably gathering faculty numbers broken down by discipline for each institution. A minimum publication threshold is set for each subject to avoid potential anomalies stemming from small numbers of highly cited papers.
Both the minimum publications threshold and the weighting applied to the citations indicator are adapted in order to best reflect prevalent publication and citation patterns in a given discipline. The h-index is a way of measuring both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar.
The h-index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department, university or country, as well as a scholarly journal. The index was suggested by Jorge E.
How are large research collaborations assessed? InQS introduced an improvement to the way research papers with authors from an exceptionally large number of institutions are assessed. Situations such as these occur most frequently in scientific subjects such as high-energy physics, cosmology, or genomics, where large-scale international collaborations are common.
If each institution involved in papers such as these receives full credit for the citations, even very important and worthwhile papers can end up having a disproportionately large impact on the ranking results.
Yet it is equally undesirable to give each institution a share of the credit, as this could discourage research collaborations among groups of any size. With the support of the QS Global Academic Advisory Board, the solution adopted was to omit any paper with more than This replaces the previous approach of omitting all papers with more than 10 institutional affiliations, which unfairly penalised certain scientific fields, such as medicine.
Weightings As research cultures and publication rates vary significantly across academic disciplines, the QS World University Rankings by Subject applies a different weighting of the above indicators in each subject.
Meanwhile in subjects such as art and design, where there are too few papers published to be statistically significant, the ranking is based solely on the employer and academic surveys. This article was originally published in February It was last updated in February Want more content like this?ScienceDirect is the world's leading source for scientific, technical, and medical research.
Explore journals, books and articles. Engineering Education Research. The School of Engineering Education's extensive research program offers national leadership in building the scholarly discipline of engineering education, and it provides a strong foundation for our graduate program and INSPIRE (Research Institute for Pre-College Engineering).
Research areas span a range of categories. Research Methodology Defined. A research method is a systematic plan for conducting research. Sociologists draw on a variety of both qualitative and quantitative research methods, including. Engineering education research (EER) is the field of inquiry that creates knowledge which aims to define, inform, and improve the education of engineers.
It achieves this through research on topics such as: epistemology, policy, assessment, pedagogy, diversity, amongst others, as they pertain to engineering. as a research field, engineering education is negotiating input from both qualitative and quantitative methods advocates, both with strong investment in the field.
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