In a new Mongol dynasty had founded the Mughal empire. Babur was the first in a line of emperors, artists and philosophers who established a rule of exceptional brilliance in India for three hundred years. They were princes who were devoted to Persian culture and they remained so; the first works of religious art which issued from their court were closely associated with the Herat school. It was only in the second half of the 16th century that the Mughal style proper began to develop; this was at a time when the palace studios of Emperor Akbar and his son Emperor Jahangir employed Indian artists and received fresh stimulus from the West.
Origins[ edit ] This art of painting developed as a blending of Persian and Indian ideas. There was already a Muslim tradition of miniature painting under the Turko-Afghan Sultanate of Delhi which the Mughals overthrew, and like the Mughals, and the very earliest of Central Asian invaders into the subcontinent, patronized foreign culture.
Although the first surviving manuscripts are from Mandu in the years either side ofthere were very likely earlier ones which are either lost, or perhaps now attributed to southern Persia, as later manuscripts can be hard to distinguish from these by style alone, and some remain the subject of debate among specialists.
Copies of this were illustrated by his descendents, Akbar in particular, with many portraits of the many new animals Babur encountered when he invaded India, which are carefully described.
Some older illustrated manuscripts have his seal on them; the Mughals came from a long line stretching back to Timur and were fully assimilated into Persianate culture, and expected to patronize literature and the arts.
Mughal painting immediately took a much greater interest in realistic portraiture than was typical of Persian miniatures. Animals and plants were also more realistically shown.
Although many classic works of Persian literature continued to be illustrated, as well as Indian works, the taste of the Mughal emperors for writing memoirs or diaries, begun by Babur, provided some of the most lavishly decorated texts, such as the Padshahnama genre of official histories.
Subjects are rich in variety and include portraits, events and scenes from court life, wild life and hunting scenes, and illustrations of battles. The Persian tradition of richly decorated borders framing the central image was continued. The style of the Mughal school developed within the royal atelier.
Knowledge was primarily transmitted through familial and apprenticeship relationships, and the system of joint manuscript production which brought multiple artists together for single works. The Parrot addresses Khojasta, a scene from the Tutinama. Opaque Watercolor, ink and gold on paper.
Freer Sackler Gallery F His usurping brother Kamran Mirza had maintained a workshop in Kabulwhich Humayan perhaps took over into his own.
Humayan's major known commission was a Khamsa of Nizami with 36 illuminated pages, in which the different styles of the various artists are mostly still apparent. Akbar [ edit ] During the reign of Humayun's son Akbar r. Akbar inherited and expanded his father's library and atelier of court painters, and paid close personal attention to its output.
He had studied painting in his youth under Abd as-Samadthough it is not clear how far these studies went. As Mughal-derived painting spread to Hindu courts the texts illustrated included the Hindu epics including the Ramayana and the Mahabharata ; themes with animal fables; individual portraits; and paintings on scores of different themes.
Mughal style during this period continued to refine itself with elements of realism and naturalism coming to the fore. Between the years of to Akbar hired over a one hundred painters to practice Mughal style painting.
Brushwork became finer and the colors lighter.An Art-Historical Examination of Indo-Persian History by Alanna M. Benham The Minassian collection of miniature paintings contains items made by Persians, Turks, and Hindus over at least four centuries. Mughal painting is that particular style of South Asian painting which generally confines miniatures either as book illustrations or as single works to be kept in albums, which emerged from Persian miniature painting (itself largely of Chinese origin), with Indian Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist influences, and developed largely in the court of the Mughal Empire of the 16th to 18th centuries.
Farrukh Beg ( ) was a Persian born Mughal painter who served in the court of Mirza Muhammad Hakim before working for Mughal Emperor Akbar and Jahangir. Rajput painting and in the cities ruled by the British East India Company, the Company style under Western influence.
European Impact on Mughal Painting. In its later phases. While Mughal painting forsook older Persian art for a new Indian style it never entirely forgot its ancestry, as we can see in the refinement and lightness of its brushwork, its swaying lines, the . Mughal painting immediately took a much greater interest in realistic portraiture than was typical of Persian miniatures.
the Company style under Western influence.
Late Mughal style often shows increased use of perspective and recession Norah M., Persian Miniature Painting, and its Influence on the Art of Turkey and India, From Persian painting to Mughal miniatures NIKI GAMM While Persian miniature painting had a tremendous influence on Ottoman miniatures, its impact on Mughal painting is less well known.