Poverty is wide spread in India. Inspite of impressive economic growth, perpetuation of the poverty is mainly because of exclusion of weaker sections of the society from the development. Increasing cost of living and expenditures demanding more credit needs of the rural poor. Inspite of great achievements in Indian credit system, many of rural poor are still not having an access to financial institutions which compels their dependency on the money lenders.
Children Brahmins the highest caste and, other general castes with better economic status Change of clothes pre- and post-defecation, and body cleansing with water after defecation is an important aspect of the defecation ritual practiced by rural people.
Therefore, they have a separate cloth a dhoti or lungi, meaning towel to be worn while going for defecation. This cloth is usually kept outside the living area, away from the main house and away from the reach of children and adults, so that no one touches it.
In case of urgency, where they fail to change their clothes, the clothes have to be rinsed with water after defecation. Wearing the same clothes without rinsing or washing is forbidden and they are restricted from entering the house.
Full body bath is not necessary. The sacred thread called paita a is wrapped around the right ear twice while going to defecate and once when they urinate. After anal cleansing, followed by full body washing with water, the thread is taken off the ear and made wet and put back on the shoulder again.
As described for Brahmin men, body cleansing with water after defecation, is strictly practiced among females as well. Females of all age groups excluding the very young have to change their clothes, each time they go to defecate.
Adhering to this ritual, the common practice is to keep aside an old unused gown, saree or dress, and change into it for defecation. For those with latrines, stepping over the squatting pan is considered chuan i. They are forbidden from entering the house wearing impure clothes.
For this reason, they prefer urinating outside the latrine mostly in the backyard and the latrine is used only to defecate. They are restricted from touching or accessing water points tube wells, or wells at home with clothes worn while impure from defecation.
Therefore, they have to collect and store enough water for not only anal cleansing and flushing, but also for bathing and washing their clothes before going for defecating when using the latrine.
In case they did not fetch enough, someone else has to assist them to fetch the water they need to use the latrine. Changing of dress or clothes is not mandatory for infants or young children. Children who can defecate on their own have to remove all garments when they need to defecate.
Faeces of children above 3 years are considered impure as by that age, the child starts eating rice and the faeces smell. Mothers develop a disgusting feeling for it. It is more convenient for them to throw these faeces on vacant land next to the house or in the backyard, and have young children defecate outside.
Other castes poor Changing of clothes is a common practice, but many poor families do not have extra dresses for changing during defecation. So, they use the same clothes each time they go for defecation and wash their fully clothed body both body and clothes together with water.
Women do the same as men. Mothers are not very strict or particular about the changing of clothes of children. Lowest castes Scheduled b poorest They mostly are the landless and work as labourers or share croppers. They usually defecate on their way to the fields and bathe before returning home.
Those who are more hygiene conscious prefer to change their clothes. Women also work as agricultural labourers, and their defecation practices are similar to those of men.Entrepreneurship development of women through SHG: Strength and weakness, both are the different sides of the same coin.
Hence, all involved group members of SHG must realize that they all work with their own individual strengths and weaknesses. It also helps to bring about aw2areness among rural women about savings, education, health, environment, cleanliness, family welfare, social forestry, etc.
Researches also reveal that increased participation of women in decision making at all level will help to adjust the goals pursued through development.
EFFECTS OF SELF HELP GROUPS TO EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN IN RURAL AREA OF BELLARY DISTRICT Mr. Basavaraj Biradar1 1Research Scholar, Dept of Social Work, Karnataka University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.
ABSTRACT Women empowerment is a process in which women challenge the existing norms and culture, .
SHGs helped rural women to gain confidence, to increase decision making, managerial skills, awareness, knowledge on banking etc. They have improved very well during post-SHG situation when compared with pre-SHG period and non-members.
Dispensing with the thrift aspect of the original model and its emphasis on collective decision-making within the SHG, MFIs tended to lend to women on an individual level, with the SHG existing purely as a guarantor of the debts of all.
Entrepreneurship development among women, particularly among rural women, will strengthen the rural and national economy. Self-Help Groups (SHGs) SHG is a small group of rural poor, who have voluntarily come forward to form a group for improvement .