In their meta-analysis, Bhutta et al. Furthermore, gestational age and birth weight appear to be directly proportional to cognitive performance:
The chemical name of zaleplon is N-[3- 3-cyanopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidinyl phenyl]-N-ethylacetamide. Its empirical formula is C17H15N5O, and its molecular weight is The structural formula is shown below.
Zaleplon is a white to off-white powder that is practically insoluble in water and sparingly soluble in alcohol or propylene glycol. Subunit modulation of the GABA-BZ receptor chloride channel macromolecular complex is hypothesized to be responsible for some of the pharmacological properties of benzodiazepines, which include sedative, anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsive effects in animal models.
Pharmacokinetics The pharmacokinetics of zaleplon have been investigated in more than healthy subjects young and elderlynursing mothers, and patients with hepatic disease or renal disease.
In healthy subjects, the pharmacokinetic profile has been examined after single doses of up to 60 mg and once-daily administration at 15 mg and 30 mg for 10 days.
Zaleplon does not accumulate with once-daily administration and its pharmacokinetics are dose proportional in the therapeutic range. Absorption Zaleplon is rapidly and almost completely absorbed following oral administration.
Peak plasma concentrations are attained within approximately 1 hour after oral administration. Distribution Zaleplon is a lipophilic compound with a volume of distribution of approximately 1. This suggests that zaleplon disposition should not be sensitive to alterations in protein binding.
The blood to plasma ratio for zaleplon is approximately 1, indicating that zaleplon is uniformly distributed throughout the blood with no extensive distribution into red blood cells. Zaleplon is primarily metabolized by aldehyde oxidase to form 5-oxo-zaleplon.
Zaleplon is metabolized to a lesser extent by cytochrome P CYP 3A4 to form desethylzaleplon, which is quickly converted, presumably by aldehyde oxidase, to 5-oxo-desethylzaleplon. These oxidative metabolites are then converted to glucuronides and eliminated in urine.
All of zaleplon's metabolites are pharmacologically inactive. Assuming normal hepatic blood flow and negligible renal clearance of zaleplon, the estimated hepatic extraction ratio of zaleplon is approximately 0. Zaleplon AUC and elimination half-life were not significantly affected.
The pharmacokinetics of Sonata zaleplon have been investigated in three studies with elderly men and women ranging in age from 65 to 85 years. The pharmacokinetics of Sonata in elderly subjects, including those over 75 years of age, are not significantly different from those in young healthy subjects.
There is no significant difference in the pharmacokinetics of Sonata in men and women. The pharmacokinetics of zaleplon have been studied in Japanese subjects as representative of Asian populations. This finding can likely be attributed to differences in body weight, or alternatively, may represent differences in enzyme activities resulting from differences in diet, environment, or other factors.
The effects of race on pharmacokinetic characteristics in other ethnic groups have not been well characterized. Zaleplon is metabolized primarily by the liver and undergoes significant presystemic metabolism.
Sonata is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. Sonata has not been adequately studied in patients with severe renal impairment.
Drug-Drug Interactions Because zaleplon is primarily metabolized by aldehyde oxidase, and to a lesser extent by CYP3A4, inhibitors of these enzymes might be expected to decrease zaleplon's clearance and inducers of these enzymes might be expected to increase its clearance.Pharmacodynamics and Mechanism of Action.
While Sonata (zaleplon) is a hypnotic agent with a chemical structure unrelated to benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or other drugs with known hypnotic properties, it interacts with the gamma-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine (GABA-BZ) receptor complex.
I was very pleasantly surprised when we bought the Introductory Calculus for Infants and I had the chance to read it. It is primarily an ABC book, using mathematical concepts for each letter (like D for derivative).
The book is filled with nice simple colorful pictures to capture an infant's attention followed by nice clear font and /5(). Habituation: Infant and Calculus Class Essay Habituation You are currently in your calculus class, and you are concentrating solely on the information your professor is teaching you.
Suddenly a loud, banging noise disrupts your once undivided attention.
Habituation Assessment in Infancy Hoben Thomas and Rick O. Gilmore The Pennsylvania State University Infant-control habituation methodology, although .
Habituation You are currently in your calculus class, and you are concentrating solely on the information your professor is teaching you. Suddenly a loud, banging noise disrupts your once undivided attention. We review comparative studies of infant habituation and dishabituation performance focusing on preterm infants.
Habituation refers to cognitive encoding, and dishabituation refers to discrimination and memory.