Antimicrobial screening of calabash leaf extracts

The fresh young leaves are commonly chewed, known as the Khat habit, to alleviate hunger and to produce stimulating effects CNS. Such effects were shown to be due to phenylalkylamine alkaloids, primarily cathinone Kalix ; Crombie et al.

Antimicrobial screening of calabash leaf extracts

It specifically compared the significant differences of the different levels of concentration of Neem tree leaf extract, and also compared to the positive control. The plant materials were collected and brought to the West Visayas State University Biological Science Laboratory where the experimentation was conducted.

Essay on Ip Antibacterial Screening of Banana Shoot Extract - Words

The interpretation of the results was based on the Claustro et. Results of the study revealed that there was no significant differences on the effect of the different levels of Neem tree Azadirachta indica leaf extract on Staphylococcus aureus.

Plants in different species just sprout and grow anywhere. Vegetations remain to be the most important part of human existence.


Medicinal substances derived from different plants around us have become the most sought sources of medicines. However, a considerable number of people in our generation still do not recognize the value and significance of medicinal plants. Many people continue to rely on synthetic drugs for treatment of common illnesses despite their being expensive.

Basically, the researchers had initiated a study that may provide appropriate answers to some common health problems experienced by human beings. Nowadays, skin problems also proliferate fast and are equally disturbing just like any other diseases affecting our communities.

This is the primary reason why researchers conceptualized this study to determine the anti-bacterial components of Neem Azadirachta indica leaves extract and its possible effects against Staphylococcus aureus, the bacteria that concerns most of the common skin problems.

Neem is a tropical tree that has been declared non-toxic to humans. Previous studies revealed that it contains anti-bacterial properties and high-content of anti-oxidant called polyphenols. Neem tree extracts has an endodontic anti-microbial agent, an alternative to frequently employed Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexide; both to inhibit the growth of endodontic pathogens.

Isolation and characterization of endophytic fungi from medicinal plant -

Sodium Hypochlorite is now used in endodontic during root canal treatments. It is the medicament of choice due to its efficacy against pathogenic organisms and pulp digestion. Chlorexide is a chemical antiseptic. It is effective on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Staphylococcus aureus is facultative anaerobic Gram-positve coccus, and is the common cause of staph infections. It is frequently part of skin flora found in the nose and the skin. It is still one of the five most common causes of nosocomial infections, often causing post-surgical wounds infection.

This study mainly aimed at finding out the antibacterial effect of Neem Azadirachta indica tree leaf- extract on Staphylococcus aureus.

Further, it also aimed to find out whether Neem tree leaf extract has significant effect in terms of different levels of concentrations, namely: Due to the high cost of medicines, unpredictable weather conditions that brought certain diseases specifically skin diseases, the continuous uplifting of herbal medicines and abundance supply of neem tree were the reason why the researcher conducted this study.

Research Paradigm The research paradigm of the study is graphically presented Figure 1.

Antimicrobial screening of calabash leaf extracts

The theoretical framework of the study indicating the fixed and the dependent variables. Statement of the Problem 4 This study aimed to determine the antibacterial effect of Neem Azadirachta indica leaves extract against Staphylococcus aureus. Determine what sample treatment showed the widest zone of inhibition and the smallest zone of inhibition.

Compared the effect of different levels of concentration of Neem Azadirachta indica leaves extract on the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus to the control set-up. It was therefore hypothesized that: There is no significant difference between the levels of concentration: Significance of the Study The anti-bacterial effect of Neem Azadirachta indica leaves extract against Staphylococcus aureus, will be a great help in discovering a herbal medicine.

More specifically, it is beneficial on the following context: Community - they can obtain a cheaper medicine using a herbal plant within their place and they can resort to the Neem Tree.

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Filipino people - herbal medicine can be afford by almost all of us due to its abundance in the community. Department of Agriculture - they will benefit on the ideas and knowledge that Neem tree can be used as an anti-bacterial medicine.

Pharmaceutical companies - a cheaper medicine will be sold and they would gain on it and they would take the idea for herbal medicine. Students - they could gain ideas about plants and can be used as a medicine and they can conduct further studies and researchers in relation to this study.

Researchers - fellow researchers can get ideas and information about the uses of Neem tree especially in inhabiting bacterial growth.

Antimicrobial screening of calabash leaf extracts

They can also study on the plants that is abundant in their a series, methanolic extract showed +ve results for many numbers of chemical compounds.

It contains Steroids, Saponins, Alkaloids, Carbohydrates, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. The summery results for the preliminary phytochemical screening of different solvent extracts of Alstoniamacrophylla are shown in the table 1.

Phytochemical screening of seed extract Phytochemical screening of the seed extracts for Alkaloids, Anthraquinones, Cardiac glycosides, Flavonoids, Phenolic compounds, Saponins, Steroids, Tannins and Tapenoids were carried out using the.

The antimicrobial activity of extracts and fractions of the bark of X. americana plant showed presences of secondary metabolites.

In some experiments, was remarked that the plants which accumulate polyphenols, tannins and. The reducing power of the selected plant leaf extract increased with increase in concentration. At mg/mL concentration, the leaves extracts of L.

camara showed absorbance of (Table 3). Thus, the plant leaves extracts exhibited a lower reducing ability than the standard. Also, the reducing ability was found to be the concentration . The crude hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous leaf extracts of medicinal plant Wrightia tinctoria were evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against selected bacterial and fungal strains.

The antimicrobial activity of the leaf, seed and central fruit-axis extract was evaluated against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and fungi based on the inhibition zone using well diffusion assay.

Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of the Extracts of Khat Callus Cultures