An analysis of the concept of cloning and the duplication of cells in biological research

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An analysis of the concept of cloning and the duplication of cells in biological research

This technical breakthrough follows similar research last year, which created cloned embryos from infant and fetal cells.

Here is what every Christian should know about human cloning: Cloning is a form of reproduction in which offspring result not from the chance union of egg and sperm sexual reproduction but from the deliberate replication of the genetic makeup of another single individual asexual reproduction.

Human cloning, therefore, is the asexual production of a new human organism that is, at all stages of development, genetically virtually identical to a currently existing or previously existing human being.

How does therapeutic cloning differ from reproductive cloning? All cloning produces a human embryo and is therefore reproductive in nature. What is the process of human cloning? Cloning is achieved by a technique referred to as somatic cell nuclear transfer SCNT.

The process involves introducing the nuclear material of a human somatic cell donor into an oocyte egg cell whose own nucleus has been removed or inactivated, and then stimulating this new entity to begin dividing and growing, yielding a cloned human embryo. Does cloning produce an exact genetic replica of the donor?

All human cells, including eggs and sperm, contain small, energy-producing organelles called mitochondria. Mitochondria contain a small piece of DNA that specifies the genetic instructions for making several essential mitochondrial proteins.

Just as in sexual reproduction, the embryo produced by cloning contains genetic material from two different individuals. How do the harvested cells from a cloned embryo differ from those produced by sexual reproduction or in-vitro fertilization? In addition to the epigenetic defects, cells derived from cloning that are injected back into the donor are rejected because of epigenetic mis-expression, genetic differences due to mitochondrial DNA, and the incompatibility of cells too immature in development to interact with adult tissue environments.

This is the major stumbling block for using material from cloned embryos for the treatment of diseases. What are the ethical problems concerning human cloning? The primary moral objection to cloning-for-research is the same as for all embryo-destructive research—it creates human life solely for the purpose of destroying it; using a human embryo merely as a means to an end e.

The objection to cloning-to-produce children are similar in that it poses a threat to the life of the child, and potentially to the birth mother. Even if the process could be made safe, though, it has the potential to alter the "DNA ecosystem" in ways that are un-predictable and thus potentially injurious to human and non-human life.

For these reasons, Christians should continue to oppose all forms of human cloning as unethical and unnecessary. Even pro-choice advocates and others who hold liberal and progressive political views find sufficient ethical concerns for opposing the procedure. The progressive International Center for Technology Assessmentfor example, highlights the concerns that cloning will lead to the exploitation of women: In recent testimony, one researcher stated that stem cells might be able to provide up to 1.

This would require a minimum of million human eggs per year — assuming a very optimistically high success rate of 1 stem cell culture out of clonal embryos. Where will researchers get these millions of eggs? From women in this country or abroad, and it is highly likely that many of these women will have to become repeat donors.

Egg donation can have significant health impacts on women. Of particular concern are 1 the super-ovulating drugs that women are given in order to provide the eggs for embryo cloning, 2 numerous hormone treatments given to ease egg extraction, and 3 the extraction process itself.

Risks to women from egg donation include a potential link to ovarian cysts and cancers, severe pelvic pain, rupture of the ovaries, bleeding into the abdominal cavity, acute respiratory distress, pulmonary embolism, and possible negative effects on future fertility.

Most women who are lured into this process are economically disenfranchised and perform this operation because they are in financial need and seek payment for their eggs.

Issue Analysis: Human cloning | ERLC Natural cloning[ edit ] Cloning is a natural form of reproduction that has allowed life forms to spread for hundreds of millions of years. It is the reproduction method used by plantsfungiand bacteriaand is also the way that clonal colonies reproduce themselves.
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Currently, the primary justification for therapeutic cloning is as a means of harvesting embryonic stem cells. Any therapies that would result from the technique would likely come from that use. Cloning, however, not only compounds the ethical concerns of embryonic stem cell ESC research but also adds a significant number of other moral problems.

An analysis of the concept of cloning and the duplication of cells in biological research

This Machiavellian approach would be difficult to justify even if ESC research were to lead to miraculous cures. But ESC research has proven to be a failure. There are more than 70 conditions currently being treated with adult stem cells, and zero with embryonic stem cells.Cloning: Past, Present, and the Exciting Future by Marie A.

Di Berardino, Ph.D. This illustrated timeline shows essential milestones in basic research that led to the cloning of Dolly and beyond, and some generally accepted biological concept: Adult cells have their fate sealed; put another way, once an udder cell.

First published in , Nature is the world’s leading multidisciplinary science journal.

An analysis of the concept of cloning and the duplication of cells in biological research

Nature publishes the finest peer-reviewed research that drives ground-breaking discovery, and is read by. sensitization of leukemic cells with growth-factor priming ref is a clinically applicable means of enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with AML: in vitro, the simultaneous exposure of leukemic cells to chemotherapy and growth factors such as increases the susceptibility of the cells to killing by chemotherapy, especially by the cell-cycle–specific agent cytarabine ref1, ref2.

The biology of cloning - OpenLearn - Open University

Bio Ch. 17 Review. STUDY. B. molecular cloning. C. RNAi.

Summary of MCAT Subjects for the current MCAT format

D. RFLP analysis. E. Organisms containing DNA from an outside source are called A. transcribed organisms. The development of PCR has revolutionized molecular biology and has led to numerous advances in basic research, as well as in medicine and forensic science.

Nov 07,  · Subject MCAT Outline of Topics: Summary Difference in content between the old MCAT and the current MCAT format; MCAT Biology. DNA, genetics, evolution, biotechnology, eukaryotic cell, prokaryotes vs.

eukaryotes, viruses, reproductive system, embryology, nervous system, endocrine system, circulatory system, respiratory system, digestive system, immune system, lymphatic system, . "California Cloning: A Dialogue on State Regulation" was convened October 12, , by the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University.

Its purpose was to bring together experts from the fields of science, religion, ethics, and law to discuss how the state of California should.

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