Definitions[ edit ] Social theory by definition is used to make distinctions and generalizations among different types of societies, and to analyze modernity as it has emerged in the past few centuries. Classical social theory has generally been presented from a perspective of Western philosophyand often regarded as Eurocentric. In the West, Saint Augustine — was concerned exclusively with the idea of the just society.
Les Coquettes et leurs toilettes: It is not, properly speaking, either a history of our usages or a tableau of Parisian elegances; it is rather a series of views of the frivolous life of this century. One might say Uzanne was determined to document not only feminine fashion, but femininity itself.
The Frenchwoman of the Century can thus be seen as a kind of historical artifact, one strand of the web-like discourse that came to structure femininity in the nineteenth century.
Part fashion magazine, part society page, part historical account, part ethnographic study — The Frenchwoman of the Century is an essential relic for any scholar of nineteenth-century Paris, not only because it documents popular attitudes surrounding social, political and economic changes, but also as a primary source illustrating the nineteenth-century compulsion to write and document the feminine, and how such documentation was executed.
Neoclassicism and Decadence Under the Directory In this first chapter, Uzanne focuses on the rising popularity of a nostalgia for the Greco-Roman past or rather, that past re-imagined during the years of the Directory, and how that nostalgia affected customs of dress and behavior amongst upper-class Frenchwomen.
Uzanne cites recent historical events and describes specific choices in toilette in an attempt to explain why and how this neo-classicism took hold of popular culture in the first place.
According to Uzanne, the execution of Robespierre on July 27th or le 9 Thermidor, by the Revolutionary calendar signified for Parisians not only the end of the Reign of Terror, but also the beginning of what was hoped would be a phase of relative peace.
Ensuring this peace, however, became a matter not of learning from the recent past, but rather of forgetting its violence and tumult altogether. Where fashion is concerned, Uzanne observes that in emulating an imagined antiquity, Parisian women in the early s were merely living out a fiction of their own invention, whose ultimate aim was oubli.
New choices in toilette and coiffure helped realize this antique fiction. Furthermore, the names of famous women from antiquity were used to refer to such revealing dresses: With styles, eras and countries mixed in an unheard-of pastiche, fashion came to reflect the social disorder in which Parisians found themselves after the Revolution had done away with traditional class and governmental structures.
The writer expresses great disdain for this new social order. The women of the Directory Nearly all of them were bouncing girls, manlike Former ideals of femininity — charm, grace and intrigue — were replaced by a desire for instant gratification.
As nothing remained of the past, and as it was impossible to improvise in a day a society with its harmonies, its usages, its garments entirely unedited, they borrowed the whole from ancient history and nations which have disappeared All took the disguise they liked; it was a general travesty, an unlimited carnival, an [orgy] without end and without reason.
While the author criticizes Directory-era nostalgia for a re-imagined antique past, he himself indulges in another kind of nostalgia: Social life was still in a state of post-Revolutionary shock as traditional class and gender roles seemed to be gradually deteriorating.
Uzanne observes one important manifestation of this deterioration in particular: Travesty was the rage for a while amidst these goddesses who dreamed of the sad semblances of Androgynes; the mania of wearing breeches became general in the world of these eccentric women.
Some indulgent admirers applauded the innovation, which they attributed to the difficulty of finding a cavalier with whom to loiter through the town.
On the 18th Brumaire the spiritual empire of women resumed by degrees its sweet and consolatory sovereignty in the mundane spheres; drawing-rooms returned into honor, conversation had its turn again: For nearly eight years conversation had been an exile from its native land.
He examines three particularly important salons at length in this chapter: Empress Josephine and the Return of Courtly Luxuries If the Directory was a time when barriers between classes were gradually broken down, the Empire was dominated by their speedy reinstatement, with a few adjustments from Bonaparte I, the new Emperor of France.
Dignities, titles, decorations had to be established amidst a people who for more than fifteen years had fought to proscribe them and had triumphed. Napoleon, however, who had the art and the power of a just and suitable will, disposed of these difficulties with a high hand.
And the most luxurious spender of them all, on whom all other extravagant behaviors were modeled, was Josephine Bonaparte herself. Indeed, it seems there was little else the Empress cared for but her toilette. In these ultra-official reunions there was little talk but much observation — all was ears and all eyes; there were splittings up into small societies; the old nobility disdained the new-comers of the Empire.
Looking back, he laments that so few writers have given such descriptive accounts of this period: What pretty pictures of Paris might be made out of the world and manners of the Empire, which have been too little studied by writers of this end of the century!
We have too much neglected to regard the heart of France during those years of gloryThis article is a general timeline of psychology.A more general description of the development of the subject of psychology can be found in the History of psychology article. Related information can be found in the Timeline of psychiatry article.
A more specific review of important events in the development of psychotherapy can be found in the Timeline of psychotherapy article. Cultural evolution: Cultural evolution, the development of one or more cultures from simpler to more complex forms.
The subject may be viewed as a unilinear phenomenon that describes the evolution of human behaviour as a whole, or it may be viewed as a multilinear phenomenon, in which case it describes the evolution.
Sociology in the 19th Century Research Paper Starter. Europe in the Nineteenth Century. The social, intellectual, and political conditions of nineteenth-century Europe had a strong influence.
John Stuart Mill (—) John Stuart Mill () profoundly influenced the shape of nineteenth century British thought and political discourse. Two final manifestations of the social sciences in the 19th century are social statistics and social (or human) geography.
At that time, neither achieved the notability and acceptance in colleges and universities that such fields as political science and economics did. Some of the nation’s leading journalists gathered in Key West, Fla., in May for the Pew Forum’s biannual Faith Angle Conference on religion, politics and public life..
Ever since then-Sen. Barack Obama spoke of his admiration for Reinhold Niebuhr in a interview with New York Times columnist David Brooks, there has been speculation about the extent to which the 20th-century.